Special Commentary: Lobbying in America

By Dr. Stephen Schwalbe
Faculty Member, Public Administration at American Public University

There is a debate among political scholars as to which type of lobbying is more effective – direct or indirect. Before addressing this question, let me provide some background on lobbying.

Lobbyists are knowledgeable people, many of them lawyers. They meet with advocates and other organizations on Capitol Hill to support specific legislation.

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SDF state defense forces

State Defense Forces: Recruitment Challenges and Opportunities

By Deano L. McNeil
Alumnus, Master of Public Administration at American Military University

State defense forces (SDF) are volunteer military forces which each state, along with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia, are authorized to maintain pursuant to Title 32, Section 109 of the US Code.

Currently, 19 states and Puerto Rico maintain SDFs, which fall under the exclusive control of their governors, through their adjutants general.

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